“The Voyager spacecraft has left the solar system,” read many headlines over the last few months. But its predecessor, the Pioneer spacecraft, should not be overshadowed. It left an important legacy as well, not for its planetary astronomy discoveries, but for its engineering lessons.
The pathfinding mission for the Voyager spacecraft’s tour of the outer planets was the Pioneer mission, with Pioneer 10 launched on March 2, 1972. Just 19 months later, Pioneer 10 passed within 132,000 km of Jupiter, returning more than 500 images taken with its single-pixel camera.
Its primary mission was to explore Jupiter. In fact, Pioneer’s discovery of the Jovian radiation belt, 1,000 times as intense as expected, came just in time to add radiation-hardened electronics to the still-under-construction Voyager craft — electronics that are credited with enabling its long life. Perhaps the part of Pioneer’s mission most important to the engineering community, however, began only after it left Jupiter’s influence.
The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts were the last crafts to have their long range radio dishes aimed back at earth by spin stabilization, rather than adjusted with thrusters or reaction gyro wheels. Between its roughly annual thrust corrections,Get the led fog lamp products information, find Cheap Interior Decoration Products, manufacturers on the hot channel. the Pioneer 10 flew a ballistic trajectory, acting as a test mass to plot out the gravitational fields of the outer solar system.
A group at JPL, lead by John Anderson, had the idea of using the motion of Pioneer 10 as a high-precision probe of the gravitational environment of the solar system, searching for unknown planets and maybe even searching for low-frequency gravitational waves from small wobbles.
After all, this was how Neptune was discovered in 1846. Urbain Le Verrier, astronomer and mathematician, not willing to let go of the accuracy of the Newtonian Theory of Gravity, realized he could account for the well-documented anomalies in the motion of Uranus by postulating a hidden planet in a precise orbit. Neptune was found precisely where he predicted it to make Newtonian gravity work. As Fran?ois Arago said,Most modern headlight designs include Cheap Marble Slabs. Le Verrier was the first astronomer to “find a planet with the point of his pen.”
He was not so lucky in applying the same analysis to the motion of Mercury. To account for the well-documented 43 arc-second-per-century anomalous shift in the perihelion of Mercury, Le Verrier proposed the Planet Vulcan, in orbit much closer to the Sun than Mercury. Vulcan was never found, but this anomaly with Mercury was one of the three observations that confirmed general relatively,We have a great selection of blown glass backyard solar landscape lights and Cheap Granite Countertops. 70 years later.
For the hundreds of volunteers who make the Labor Day weekend Odyssey Greek festival a reality — and the thousands of visitors who attend each year — one of the most pleasant aspects of the event is the sense of family and community that it fosters.Anne Faraclas, a festival spokeswoman, said last week she believes the festival is so successful because of the great bonhomie shared among attendees.
The 33rd annual celebration “of all things Greek” will take place Friday through Monday, Aug. 30-Sept 2, at St. Barbara Greek Orthodox Church in Orange.”It has become a Labor Day weekend tradition for so many” — regardless of ancestry — in the region, Faraclas said. “It’s for everyone who loves great Greek cuisine and music,” said Faraclas, who has been involved with the event since its debut 32 years ago. (Her Greek parents were among the founders.)
“Many visitors return year after year. We all have friendships that have been built over the decades” because of the festival, with visitors and volunteers alike, she said.Faraclas added that the church has a congregation of about 700 families, from throughout Fairfield and New Haven counties. Odyssey brings a large number of those members together as volunteers.
Among the festival highlights is authentic Greek cuisine, from appetizers to desserts, made with family recipes passed down through the generations, she said.”I think we’re known far and wide as a food festival — and it’s true that visitors could eat their way through” their visit, she said, laughing. “But it’s also a great way to share our heritage and Greek culture — and an opportunity to see friends,” Faraclas said.
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